What is the Density of Aluminum? (And Why is it Important)

Aluminum is a versatile metal with numerous applications owing to its lightweight and resistance to corrosion. Compared to other, chemical metal aluminum has a lower density.

What is the Density of Pure Aluminum?

Density can be described as the total number of particles that are present in a unit of measurement of an object. It is the total mass of the object as per a given unit volume.

The density of pure aluminum is 2.7g/cm3. Destiny may slightly vary depending on the state of the metal. In its solid state, a more accurate density is 2,699 kg/m3.

In its liquid state, its density slightly varies when falling in a range between 2,697-2,699 kg/m3. Aluminum’s liquid density may vary at different temperatures at 973 kelvin its density is 2,357 kg/m3 while at 1173 kelvin it is 2,304 kg/m3. 

Aluminum Element
Aluminum Element

Benefits of Knowing Aluminum Density

There are many benefits to knowing and understanding the density of aluminum. Its relatively low density makes aluminum a lightweight metal.

Because it is lightweight, aluminum has a very many uses due to its low density. These benefits include;

  • Aluminum is lightweight making it easy to shape and mold as is very malleable
  • The low density of aluminum makes it the perfect material for aerospace and automotive.
  • Its lightweight property makes it a great raw material for a broad range of applications such as making construction materials, household items, and electrical parts among others.

Units of Measurements for Aluminum Density

The unit of measurement of the density of aluminum and other metals is a kilogram per meter square (kg/m3) for larger pieces.

You can also use grams per centimeter square(g/cm3) which is simpler.

How to Calculate Density of Aluminum

You can calculate the density of aluminum by dividing the mass of aluminum by its volume.

With regards to the aluminum industry, the formula of the density of aluminum takes into consideration the density of aluminum in its pure state and the density of other metals used for alloying.

How to Calculate Density of Aluminum
How to Calculate Density of Aluminum

Density of Aluminum Alloys

Different metals may be incorporated into pure aluminum to give it more beneficial properties. This process may alter the design of the final product, depending on the materials you include.

Therefore, different aluminum alloys will have varying densities as you will see shortly. The density of aluminum alloys includes,

The alloys with a density slightly higher than pure aluminum include; Alloy 1100 which has a density of 2.710 g/cm3, and 2014 with a density of 2.800 g/cm3.

The density of alloy 2024 is 2.780 g/cm3, that of 3003 is 2.730 g/cm3, alloy 3004 has a density of 2.720 g/cm3, 3005 has 2.730 g/cm3 and 3105 has a density of 2.720 g/cm3. Other alloys and their respective densities include;

  • 4043 – 2.690 g/cm3
  • 5005- 2.700 g/cm3
  • 5050- 2.690 g/cm3
  • 5052- 2.680 g/cm3
  • 5083- 2.660 g/cm3
  • 5086- 2.660 g/cm3
  • 5154- 2.660 g/cm3
  • 5183- 2.660 g/cm3
  • 5356- 2.640 g/cm3
  • 5454 – 2.690 g/cm3
  • 5456- 2.660 g/cm3
  • 5554- 2.690 g/cm3
  • 5556 -2.660 g/cm3
  • 5654 -2.660 g/cm3
  • 6005 -2.700 g/cm3
  • 6061- 2.700 g/cm3
  • 6063- 2.700 g/cm3
  • 6066- 2.720 g/cm3
  • 6070- 2.710 g/cm3
  • 6105- 2.690 g/cm3
  • 6351- 2.710 g/cm3
  • 6463- 2.690 g/cm3
  • 7075- 2.810 g/cm3
  • 0- 2.690 g/cm3

Factors Affecting Aluminum Density

Several factors can alter the density of aluminum. These factors include

  • The type of material used to make aluminum alloys. Depending on the raw materials you add, it may increase the density of aluminum while others may lower it.
  • Heating aluminum may also lower its temperature as the heat causes the metal to expand increasing its volume.
  • High pressure leads to compression reducing the volume of the aluminum. This causes an increase in the density
  • A change in the state of aluminum may also affect the density. Its density while solid may differ when in its liquid state.
Density of Aluminum over Temperature
Density of Aluminum over Temperature

Comparing Aluminum Density to Other Popular Metals

Aluminium has a relatively lower density compared to other metals. These metals include;

  • Aluminum has a density of 2.71 g/cm3
  • Zinc 7.13 g/cm3.
  • Iron 7.20 g/cm3
  • Copper 8.94 g/cm3
  • Lead 33 g/cm3
  • Steel – 7.86 g/cm3
  • Gold – 19.30 g/cm3
  • Brass – 52 g/cm3
  • Bronze – 8.80 g/cm3
  • Nickel- 8.89 g/cm3
  • Copper- 8.94 g/cm3
  • Silver- 10.49 g/cm3
Comparison of Aluminum Density to Other Metals
Comparison of Aluminum Density to Other Metals

Conclusion

Aluminum’s low density makes it light in weight. Despite this, it has a high strength-to-volume ratio making it a very versatile material with a wide range of applications. Therefore, before you select an aluminum or its alloy to use it is important to know the best density required for your application.

More Resources;

Aluminum Machining – Source: HM

Aluminum Density – Source: AmesWEB

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